QUALITY of teachers is a major factor determining the success of education facilitation is irrefutable. However, by looking at the professional and pedagogical competencies of teachers in the results of the Teacher Competency Test (UKG) 2015 and earlier UKG 2012, the ideals on the availability of teachers who are merely decent for teaching are still 'far from the fire'.
Why not. Regardless of the validity or reliability related to these two UKGs, the average score of the teacher's competency test results nationally is below 50 for the 0-100 score scale. These results clearly show that most teachers do not master the teaching materials and are unable to facilitate learning. In addition to teacher competence is only one component of an educational system, quantitative explanations should be seen as generalizations-like the tip of a small iceberg when underneath there is a larger structure that is invisible.
What is the dynamics of teacher education in Indonesia and why this incompetence problem can occur?
Learn from history
The first teacher school in Indonesia is Kweekschool or Pedagogische academie voor het baseonderwijs (Pedagogical Academy for Elementary Education) established since 1834. The establishment of this teacher school is based on the needs of teachers who can educate low-level candidates for the Dutch colonial administration. The purpose of the teacher education system is functional and vocational.
Along with the strengthening of Ethical Political influence in the realm of education in Indonesia, there have also been indigenous schools in the early 20th century and the development of traditional Islamic education.
Education as a liberation effort complements the vocational goals of Dutch colonialism and the humanitarianism of the Ethical Policy.
The indigenous teacher education system-which since independence has been developed by social organizations-has additional colors. For example, Mu'allimin Muhammadiyah, meaning teacher school run by Muhammadiyah, incorporates ideological elements in its educational objectives. Similarly, schools run by Sarekat Islam, NU, and other organizations.
Post-independence, the teacher education system is colored by the dialectics between ethical concepts and the colonial system of education with the dynamics of a new state: the need for the masification of education, the development of governmental and economic systems, and the ideological struggle between liberalism, socialism and religious ideas.
By continuing the functional concept of the colonial era, there are lower teacher schools for prospective elementary and high school teachers for prospective high school teachers before they evolve into Teacher Education School (SPG), Religious Teacher Education (PGA), and so on.
To follow the shift in formal teacher qualifications, the faculty of education was opened at PTN and private, which later evolved into IKIP, College of Teacher Training and Education (STKIP), and so forth. After more than seven decades of independence, we now know the Primary School Teacher Education (PGSD) and IKIP evolved into State University.
Behind the tendencies that tend to be symbolic and trendy post-independence, one that escapes our consciousness is that there has been what can be called a teacher education involution-because it spawned teacher incompetence.
First, the vocational concept of teacher education presupposes the outcome of a teacher candidate who can facilitate learning in accordance with the skills that the student must possess. The orientation of the education system is the skills ranging from preparing, organizing, and evaluating learning. Inherent in it, of course, proficiency in terms of learning materials.
In fact, at least since the availability of teacher competence test data in the last decade, teachers who educate the nation's children are on average incompetent and also incompetent in the subject matter.
One explanation, also found in the educational system of teachers in America (Rita Kramer, 1991), is that institutions that should educate prospective teachers to be skilled at teaching are trapped in the lecture cycle of education and not training adequately to facilitate education.
Consequently, like Confucian aphorism, what happens is i hear, i forget-ignorance because the learning system is more 'lecturing'. Teacher education never gets to the stage i see i remember, let alone to the stage i do i understand-be completely understand because it is trained to practice it.
Secondly, the concept of ethical and liberation in teacher education, which has been initiated since the nineteenth century, presupposes the output of candidates of teachers who have social consciousness and are able to become actors that encourage the transformation of society. In fact, most teachers today are mentally ` employee '(at least based on World Bank data, 2010), who are busy calculating the amount of salary and not achievement.
Here there is a shift in the orientation of teacher education, from transformative goals to highly functional, mechanical and economical.
Third, when native teachers schools were established in the early 20th century by various social organizations, religion became one of the driving forces for the struggle for independence. Islam, for example, is understood not merely a religion of worship or law, but more concretely as a religion which also obliges its adherents to liberate themselves and society from the tyranny of colonization.
When there is a shift in the real condition, from the colonized physically to the non-colonized, dynamic dialectics gradually transforms into a monologue, which is the proliferation and hardening of religious voices in various forms of discourse and movement that ignore plurality and social interaction. When the realm of education entered into this monologue, the religious element in education that was previously liberative turned into an ideological charge that actually led to the involution.
Teacher education update
Teacher education reform should at least end the three forms of involution above.First, it takes teacher education based on practicality, not merely conceptual lectures.
Secondly, the ethical basis of teacher also should not be solely dikuliahkan or memorized in order to answer the exam questions. There needs to be a teacher education system that allows for the internalization of teacher values-such as a series of community service activities that enable and ensure the occurrence of dialectics between the prospective teacher's ethical knowledge and social reality.
Third, any effort that leads to indoctrination in the name of a particular ideology is a virus that will undermine the continuity of the teacher education system. Religion, for example, must be understood and accepted by prospective teachers as a driving force for individual and social cohesiveness and change and not the other way to be a source of conflict and tyranny.
Watch Out! High Blood Man Not Allowed Drink This Drug
Perhaps you've read there is a written prohibition on flu drug packs that high blood people should not take the drug. Well, now there must be a question, actually what drugs should not be drunk by high blood people and why it should not be. Most of us may assume that all drugs sold freely on the market are safe drugs for anyone. Even consider it safer than prescription drugs from doctors.
But the fact is, all drugs can have harmful side effects. Even aspirin can increase the risk of gastric bleeding, and acetaminophen (Paracetamol) can cause liver damage. Therefore, for those of you who decide to use certain over-the-counter medicines, it should always pay full attention to the potential risks and benefits as well as other important information contained on the packaging label.
Especially in people with certain conditions, such as pregnant women, breastfeeding, have high blood pressure, diabetes, and others. Relating to people with hypertension (high blood), then they should avoid drugs that can increase blood pressure. Some of the over-the-counter drugs can cause blood pressure to rise so it should be avoided. There are also drugs that interact with high blood medications that may be consumed, then these medications should also be avoided by people with high blood who are undergoing certain medications.
This is a free drug that should not be taken by people with high blood: Pain Relief Pain relievers or analgesics such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) eg ibuprofen and naproxen can increase blood pressure even if you are already taking anti-hypertensive medications. The analgesic drug has the effect of constricting the blood vessels and increasing the amount of sodium in the body.
Both of these effects can cause high blood pressure. The use of high-dose NSAIDs also causes kidney damage, which increases blood pressure. Oral contraceptives (Pill) Pills containing estrogen can cause high blood pressure in about 5 percent of women who consume it. That is why women with a history of high blood pressure or other risk factors associated with high blood pressure such as smoking are usually warned not to use estrogen-based contraceptives.
Alernative birth control pills are safe for people with high blood, including pure progestin pills. The safer type of contraception, which uses nonhormonal contraceptives, such as IUDs or spirals, condoms, and so on. Antihistamines and decongestants These drugs are often used to treat colds, nasal congestion, and allergic itching drugs. These drugs should not be taken by a person with high blood pressure because they can increase blood pressure and interact with high blood drugs.
Antihistamines for example, chlorpheniramine (CTM), cetirizine, loratadine, etc. As for example decongestants, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, etc. These drugs should not be taken by a person with high blood pressure unless the doctor recommends it. Weight Loss Drugs Many of these products contain antihistamines and other substances such as caffeine that can increase blood pressure. If you want to consume pills to lose weight, it is safer to consult with a doctor first.
Drugs Maag Indeed, not all drug ulcer should not be drunk by high blood people. Antacids and other ulcers include sodium (high sodium), which can increase blood pressure. So, be sure to read the labels carefully to check whether the sodium content is, and whether it is high. Caffeine Caffeine has the effect of increasing blood pressure. In addition to being found in some foods and beverages such as coffee and tea, caffeine is also present in a number of over the counter drugs, including some that are combined with paracetamol or aspirin. So pay attention to the composition of any over-the-counter medicines you want to buy. If it contains caffeine, then the drug should not be drunk by a person with high blood
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Medicinal Herbs Make no mistake, the herbs are not necessarily 100% safe and without side effects. Ephedra-containing herbs, found in some weight-loss supplements, can be harmful in people with high blood pressure. Patients with hypertension should also avoid gingko, a herbal remedy commonly used to improve memory. If in herbal ingredients contain thiazide diuretics, then also should not be consumed because it can interact with high blood pressure medication.
So if you have high blood pressure, then consult first with a doctor or pharmacist regarding the over-the-counter or herbal medicines you want to consume. Do not let your goal solve the problem with the drug, instead causing other problems worse.